英语论文格式要求

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  一、文献引用(统一按 APA 格式规范夹注)

  (一)引用基本常识

  1、如引用到某作者的话语或观点,需在句中或括号内注明该作者姓氏(last name) 。

  2、直接引用的,需在直接引用话语部分加双引号(quotation marks),并注明页码。

  3、在所引用的话语后加括号(parentheses)需在其后加句号(period)。

  4、中文作者在正文中夹注要求用作者姓氏汉语拼音,按英文 APA规范夹注。

  (二)具体规范和示例

  1、间接引用

  A. 引用单一作者的著作的(Single author),可有以下几种引用方式:

  In 1989, Jorgensen compared formal interviews to carefully constructed questionnaires. OR

  Jorgensen (1989) compared formal interviews to carefully constructed questionnaires. OR

  Jorgensen compared formal interviews to carefully constructed questionnaires (1989). OR

  Jorgensen stated, “Formal interviews produced optimal results in several situations” (1989, p. 23).

  Smith (2019) surveyed this phenomenon.

  A famous survey of this phenomenon (Smith, 2019) showed that....

  In 2019, Smith demonstrated that..

  B. 引用两位共同作者著作的(Citing Works by Two Authors),如用括号则需在两作者之间加表示“and”的符号“(&)”;如无括号则 用 and.”,如:

  According to the study, 25% of people prefer cats over dogs (Smith & Brown, 2019). OR

  Smith and Brown (2019) surveyed this phenomenon.

  In 1992, Leonard and Trent argued that interviews have produced reliable information. OR

  Leonard and Trent (1992) argued that interviews have produced reliable information. OR

  The Arawaks had been living on the island for several thousand years (Leonard & Trent, 1992).

  C. 引用文献为三到五位作者的(Citing Works by Three, Four, or Five Authors.), 第一次引用的需注明所有作者,接下来再引用的则只需注明第一位作者的姓(surname)并加 “ et al.”表示,注意加句号(with a period),如:

  • A recent survey (Smith, Brown, & Black, 2019) showed.... [first reference]

  • Smith et al. (2019) showed [second reference]

  • Bourne et al. (1994) found that this kind of activity “compares favorably to the national level of outdoor recreation” (p. 83).

  D. 文献来源为不同时期多位作者的,按主要作者姓氏字母顺序列出,并用分号“;”(semicolons)分开,如:

  These data are consistent with other studies concerning this topic

  (Greenfield, 1990; Patterson, 1997; Smith & Jones, 1992).

  Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg &Funk, 1990)

  E. 引用团体作者(corporate author)的作品,括号夹注中应使用团体的名称,如:

  Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54).

  F. 引用文献源自采访、邮件、电话等观点或文字的(Personal communication: interviews, letters, e-mails, phone conversations, etc.)属不可追溯检索信息,不必在参考文献中列出,如:

  Trent Presto (personal interview, November 5, 2019) found the work rewarding. OR

  V. G. Nguyen (E-mail, September 25, 2019) confirmed these statistics stating again that the margin of error was less than 1 percent.

  G. 文中引用出现同一姓氏的(Citing Works by Authors Who Have the Same Surname

  ),应在姓氏前加注其名首字母用以区分,如:

  R. D. Luce (1959) and P. A. Luce (1986) also found

  J. M. Goldberg and Neff (1961) and M. E. Goldberg and Wurtz (1972) studied.

  如为同一姓氏中文作者,APA格式为:(W.Y. Wang, 2019), (L.F. Wang, 2019, p. 213)

  H. 引用无作者文献(Citing Works with No Author),如果文献标题没有出现在正文里,则括号夹注中应使用该标题或者(如果标题过长的话)使用该标题中的关键词组(选择标题开始部分的词组),如:

  •“Survey of Asian Men (2019)....

  •…a recent study (Hispanic and Female, 2019)....

  I. 引用同一作者同一年不同文献的(Citing Multiple Works Written in the Same Year by the Same Author),则需在年份后加(a, b, c)(同参考文献)。对应的Reference List:

  Jensen, D. (2019a). A work to be admired. New York, NY: Smith Publishing.

  Jensen, D. (2019b). Yet more works to be admired . New York, NY: Smith Publishing.

  J. 无出版日期文献(Citing Works with No Date of Publication),用“ (n.d.) ”表示,如:

  Brown’s study (n.d) showed that kittens are visually pleasing…

  K. 无页码文献(Citing Works without Page Numbers),如引用内容来自电子资源的,引用源自某“部分”(..section)或“段落”(para.)序号加以注明,如:

  • (Smith, 2019, para. 5)

  • (Brown, 2019, Introduction section, para. 1)

  L. 引用来自电子网络资源的(Electronic source),需注明整个网址:

  Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive Web site for children ().

  M. 引用翻译文献

  间接引用格式为: (Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation),如 :

  (Laplace, 1814/1951)

  直接引用格式为:(Author Surname, Year Originally Published/Year of Translation, page number),如:

  (Laplace, 1814/1951, p. 148)

  注:对应的在参考文献中References其格式为:

  Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Translator

  First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher.

  (Original work published Year).

  References:

  Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott &

  F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

  N. 引用文学作品和经典文献

  (1)在引用剧本时应标出引文的幕、场、行,如:

  In his famous advice to players, Shakespeare’s Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, “whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature” (3.2.21-23).也可用III.ii.23,分别表示第三幕第二场第23行.

  这里的括号夹注表示引文来自剧本第三幕第二场的21至23行。(注意标点的使用。)

  When Homer’s Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men “mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil” (10.209-11).

  这里的括号夹注表示引文来自诗歌第10节的209至211行。对不分节的诗第一次引用时应说明括号里标的是行数,使用“line”,以后的引用则不需再说明。例如:

  第一次引用:(lines 5-8);以后的引用:(12-13)

  例子里的括号夹注表示引文来自该书第二册第十章的第117页。(注意标点和缩略语的使用。)

  (3)引用小说

  在引用有章节、分册的小说的时候,应标出引文所在的页码、册数、章节,如:

  One of Kingsolver’s narrators, teenager Rachel, pushes her vocabulary beyond its limits. For example, Rachel complains that being forced to live in the Congo with her missionary family is “a sheer tapestry of justice” because her chances of finding a boyfriend are “dull and void” (117; bk. 2, ch. 10).

  如果论文是有关小说评论,因一般都需从同一小说中反复引用,为方便起见,在第一次引用后用圆括弧注明页码,在加一个尾注,用上标标出。尾注说明格式如下例。以后每次从该小说引用后, 只注明页码即可, 毋需再加尾注。

  例:In six months’ time, he was tramped into marriage with her, though “he had no respect for her.” (p. 40)1

  尾注格式 (NOTES):

  1. All the quotations from the novel are taken from : Thomas Hardy. Jude the Obscure. Oxford: OUP. 1991

  在引用《圣经》、《可兰经》等经典文献的时候,应标出引文的篇、章、节,如:

  Consider the words of Solomon: “If your enemies are hungry, give them food to eat. If they are thirsty, give them water to drink” (Bible, Prov. 25. 21).

  例子里的括号夹注表示引文来自旧约《圣经》的《箴言》篇第25章第21节。《圣经》各篇的缩写有标准的写法,因而使用时应该注意核对。

  O. 引用中文作者文献

  在用英文撰写论文的过程中,如果要引用中文文献,不能写作者的全名(如Hu Zhuanglin, 1994),也不能直接用中文(如胡壮麟,1994或胡,1994),应为按英文论文的引文格式引用。一般的学术期刊都会提供期刊名称及文献题目的英文翻译,作者不要自己随便翻译。 比如:

  For example, text studies in the 1960s and early 1970s were more or less concerned with “text grammar” and textual “grammaticality” (Hu, 1994,pp. 5-6).

  These scholars chose to study coherence as a social phenomenon, rather than a mental phenomenon (Zhu & Yan, 2019).

  P. 转引,即非直接从原著作中引用,而是转引自他人曾引用的内容,应使用“as cited in…”注明. 如:

  Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) provided a glimpse into the world

  注:在参考文献部分,仅将转引的文献信息列出,不需将原作者及文献信息列出。

  Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route an parallel-distributedprocessing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

  R. 引用文献图表,需在图表下用Figure/Table(Number)标识,并附Note说明,如:

  (1)文内夹注(在图表下方加 Note. 说明

  Note. From Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modeling. by D,. Ackerman and E.D.Stein, 2019, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 134(8), p.629. (引自期刊)

  Note. From [or the data in column # are from] Thermophysical properties of fluids p.113, by M.J. Assael, 1998, London: Imperial College Press. (引自书籍著作)

  Note. From [or the data in column # are from] International Merchandise Imports, Australia, Jan 2019, Australian Bureau of Satatistics. (来自网络)

  (2)参考文献(与上对应)

  Ackerman, D., & Stein, E.D. (2019). Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modeling. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 134(8), 629-639. (来自期刊)

  Assael, M. (1998). Thermophysical properties of fluids. London: Imperial College Press. (来自书籍)

  Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). International Merchandise Imports Australia, January 2019 (No. 5439.0), Retrieved February 18, 2019 from @.nsf/mf/5439.0?OpenDocument

  注:如为自己绘制图表,一般应用“Table # +A brief but clear explanatory title.”(此处为斜体)表示;或Figure#. +Descriptive caption for figure.

  (二)直接引用

  1、直接引用文献部分内容少于40个单词(Quotes less than 40 words),如:

  Rossett (1995) states that needs assessment is conducted “when the instructional technologist is trying to respond to a request for assistance” (p. 184).

  Interviews and observations are frequently used needs assessment tools. Especially, observations are “a very useful tool for finding out what is really happening at work” (Rossett, 1995, p. 191).

  Programmed instruction, initially developed by Sydney Pressey and populated by B. F. Skinner, “presents new instructional content to learners in a controlled sequence” (Chyung, 2019, pp. 24-25).

  Distinct differences are seen between data gathered for male and female subjects in the first study (Beech & Moen, 1994, Figure 2).

  To facilitate the shift from teacher-centered to student-centered learning, written materials that accompany distance courses should include concept maps and advance organizers, as demonstrated by the Kawakami method (Kawakami, 1996, Chapter 5).

  注: 直接引用的必须加注页码,除非文献来自电子网络资源。加括号表明所引用部分为文中非作者个人话语或观点,应在引号之外。另外,括号内“(作者,年份,页码)”各单项之间需加逗号“,”(commas)。 最后,注意 “p.” 是用来表示引用来自某一页,而 “pp.” 表示引用某页码范围内的多页。但如果涉及到图表章节等时,所用词figure, chapter, table and equation需在文内夹注中写出。

  2. 直接引用文献内容为40个单词以上的,使用 block quote format,需另起一行,并左右悬挂缩进五个空格,注意句号应置于括号前,不必加引号。如:

  Rossett (1995) points out the importance of examining records and outcomes:

  The examination of extant data is a wonderful needs assessment tool because it is inexpensive. This tool takes the instructional technologist across the organization in search of the natural outcomes of effective and ineffective performance. It involves asking colleagues for the data that automatically flow from their work. The only challenge is to convince colleagues that they ought to release that information to you.

  (p. 192)

  二、文后参考文献格式规范(REFERENCES,英文在前,中文在后)

  (一)英文文献格式要求

  1、基本要求

  A. 参考文献中英文作者的姓与名。注意应使用姓氏在前,随后为名字的首字母而非全名,如: YES

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